Simulation model of a photovoltaic panel

This tutorial will describe how to simulate the V-I characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) module. The tremendous growth in integration of renewable energy sources such as PV and wind turbine generators has been welcomed as cutting carbon emissions is becoming a priority. From an engineering perspective, it becomes important to be able to fully model and analyze these sources before their deployment to ensure that their integration benefits the grid. Most importantly, the integration of renewable sources should not disrupt the operation of the grid. For this purpose, the first step is to understand their behavior and develop simulation models.

The simulation of the PV module in detail requires an in-depth understanding of the physics of the solar cell. This tutorial will address the major factors that affect production of energy from a solar cell but will not model every physical detail. The tutorial will describe how the detailed model of the solar cell has been simplified so that it can be modeled in a simulation.

The outline of the tutorial is as follows:

  1. Basics of the operation of a PV cell/module
  2. Factors affecting energy produced
  3. Equation of PV voltage and current
  4. Simulating the PV panel
  5. Simulation results
This tutorial is accompanied by simulation files. It is recommended to try out the simulation files while reading the tutorial.

The report for the tutorial can be found in the link:
Click here for report

The simulation files for the tutorial can be purchased from the link:

All the latest updates in the project are added to the Updates page:

The latest version of the software can be found on the link:

In order to install the software, read the document INSTALL.pdf:

To use the software, check out the user manual:

To learn more about simulation in general, feel free to purchase my book from Gumroad:

For further questions, contact me by email at